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Mark Hyman: Reprogramming Our Genes

Duration: 1:13:03

Release date: 8/31/2022

2 Key takeaways

  1. A healthy lifestyle is currently the most effective way to slow down aging

  2. New scientific advancements may allow humans to live much longer

Dr. Mark Hyman started this podcast by stating that we can reprogram the cells of an 80-year old person to behave as embryonic (growing stage during pregnancy)

Defining Aging as a Disease

  1. Almost every major source of morbidity and mortality especially in industrialized nations is related to aging

  2. We should consider it as a natural process that causes age-related diseases

  3. If we learn to reduce the causes of accelerated age-related diseases we can say age is a framework of diseases instead of defining it as a disease

Reprogramming Cells

  1. Age-related diseases can be controlled by restoring the younger internal stage of cell life

  2. If cells in the body behave as useful cells, then biological age will be reduced

  3. Senescent cells (dysfunctional and more prevalent with age) do not function properly causing accelerated aging

  4. Science can now program our cells to function as embryonic

Yamanaka Factors

  1. Yamanaka factors for cell reprogramming have been tested successfully on animals

  2. Yamanaka factors are effective if we insert them in the germline( a series of cells that pass on genetic material to offspring)

  3. Does not work well when scientists insert them at the adult stages

  4. The major issue with Yamanaka factors is that in animals we can insert them in the germline but in humans, we cannot

  5. Human trials have not begun

Gene Therapy vs Gene Editing

  1. Gene therapy is replacement of a gene or augmentation

  2. Gene therapy can be used effectively to reverse disease and lengthen life span

  3. Results show that gene therapy can increase life span up to 1.8 times

  4. Gene editing is removing gene function or changing it

Animals to Human Transplant

  1. Xenotransplantation

  2. The process of genetically modifying animal organs to be transplanted into humans

  3. Scientists have attempted to genetically engineer pigs in 42 different ways to make their organs compatible in humans

  4. Several transplants have been attempted but have not been successful

  5. The survival record of a person who received a transplant from an animal is 600 days to date

  6. Organs transplanted from animals are far better than 3d-printed organs because 3d-printed organs are not fully functional

  7. Organ transplants from animals might improve technology, allowing us to create organs that are more resistant to disease

Can we Live a Long Youthful Life?

  1. Yes, it appears that it will be possible with the help of advancements in technology

  2. With the help of gene therapy, a 60-year-old person can be restored to behave as a 30-year-old

Slowing Aging without Science

  1. The most effective way to slow aging without gene editing is through lifestyle change

  2. Diet

  3. Exercise

  4. Stress

  5. Hormesis (physical stressors such as ice bath and sauna)

Restoring Ecosystems

  1. Scientists may be able to restore damaged ecosystems through gene editing by bringing back mammals that have been extinct

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